HSV infections of humans were first documented in ancient Greece. Greek scholars used the word ‘‘herpes” to describe spreading lesions. The classification now in use came into being in the late eighteenth century, and although the vesicular nature of lesions associated with herpetic infections was previously well characterized, it was not until 1893 that Vidal specifically recognized person-to-person transmission of HSV infections. HSV is a member of a family of viruses whose genomes consist of a single large double-stranded DNA molecule.
The herpes simplex virion consists of four components: an electron-dense core containing viral DNA; an icosadeltahedral capsid; an amorphous, at times eccentric layer of proteins, designated tegument, which surrounds the capsid; and an envelope. The capsid consists of one hundred and sixty two capsomeres and is surrounded by the tightly adhering tegument. The envelope surrounds the capsid-tegument structure and consists of at least ten glycosylated and several nonglycosylated viral proteins, lipids, and polyamines.
Viral DNA contains at least one hundred and fifty-two kbp. The variability in size is due chiefly to the variation in the number of reiterations of specific terminal and internal sequences. HSV-1 and HSV-2 DNAs consist of two covalently linked components, designated as L (long) and S (short). Each component is composed of unique sequences flanked by relatively large inverted repeats. The two components can invert relative to one another to yield four populations of DNA molecules differing solely in the relative orientation of these DNA sequences.
To initiate infection, HSV must attach to cell-surface receptors, fuse its envelope to the plasma membrane, and allow the deenveloped capsid to be transported to the nuclear pores. The DNA is released into the nucleus at the core. The key events in viral replication that occur in the nucleus include transcription, DNA synthesis, capsid assembly, DNA packaging, and envelopment. Viral surface glycoproteins mediate attachment and penetration of the virus into cells. They also elicit host immune responses to the virus.
Currently, at least ten viral glycoproteins are known, and an eleventh is predicted. HSV-1 is more frequently associated with nongenital infection, while HSV-2 is associated with genital disease. Following primary infection, neutralizing antibodies to HSV develop in the serum. Subsequently, some seropositive individuals develop clinically mild recurrent labial or genital lesions, typifying the unique biological property of HSV, namely an ability to recur in the presence of humoral immunity or reactivation of latent infection.
The spectrum of disease caused by HSV includes an association with erythema multiforme, primary and recurrent infections of mucous membranes, HSV encephalitis, Kaposi’s varicella-like eruption, keratoconjunctivitis, neonatal HSV infection, and visceral HSV infections in immunocompromised hosts. The cure for herpes symptoms is dependent on which strain of the virus is contracted. The herpes simplex virus is highly contagious. Although there are eight different strains, HSV-1 and HSV-2 are responsible for the majority of herpes infections.
After a person becomes infected with HSV, the virus moves to sensory nerves in the ganglia. Once there, it seems to reside, at which point herpes cure is no longer feasible. Cures for herpes only relieve the symptoms but do not eradicate the virus. Herpes cures are being developed but so far, the window of opportunity for their effective use is small. As new chemical drug options are not viable, alternative antiviral herpes cures are being investigated with great interest. Plant medicine has a wide spectrum of antiviral activity against herpes.
Recent scientific studies of medicinal antiviral plant extracts show very encouraging results for a herpes cure, and have sparked a new methodology for treating herpes. The cure in this treatment has the ability to inactivate and destroy HSV. This herpes cure gives immediate results and pain relief are certainly experienced with every application. It exhibits a pronounced anti-herpetic activity against herpes and, unlike other cures for herpes, actually kills these viruses upon exposure regardless of location on the body. To learn more, please go to http://www.naturespharma.org.[ad_2]